Edorium Journal of

Anatomy and Embryology

 
  Table of Contents    
Review Article
 
Embryology and evolutionary history of the respiratory tract
Samantha White1, Melinda Danowitz1, Nikos Solounias2
1Medical Student, Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, USA.
2Professor, Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, USA.

Article ID: 100016A04SW2016
doi:10.5348/A04-2016-16-RA-8

Address correspondence to:
Melinda Danowitz
8000 Northern Boulevard Old Westbury NY
USA, 11568

Access full text article on other devices

  Access PDF of article on other devices

[HTML Full Text]   [PDF Full Text] [Print This Article]
[Similar article in Pumed] [Similar article in Google Scholar]

How to cite this article
White S, Danowitz M, Solounias N. Embryology and evolutionary history of the respiratory tract. Edorium J Anat Embryo 2016;3:54–62.


Abstract
Human respiratory embryology and anatomy often reflects the evolutionary transformation from primitive breathing apparatuses. The gills of fishes are invested with vasculature, muscles, cartilages and nerves, and function in pumping water to facilitate gas exchange. As tetrapods evolve air-breathing respiratory structures, the gills lose their breathing function. However, the associated arteries, veins, nerves, musculature, and cartilaginous support become integrated into the pharynx and head. In the Tiktaalik, a popular proposed transitional species between fishes and tetrapods, both gills and lungs are present. Variations in the anatomy of the larynx allow for differing methods of sound production between birds, reptiles, and mammals, and the changing position of the larynx in humans represents feeding mechanisms in infants, and voice production in adults. Comprehension of the normal embryologic development also facilitates a deeper understanding of congenital anomalies. The respiratory tree originates as a diverticulum off of the proximal endodermal gut tube; failed septation between the lung buds and digestive tract results in an anomalous respiratory/esophageal connection seen in tracheoesophageal fistulas. Combining key features of human lung embryology with comparative respiratory anatomy reinforces the relationship between structure and function, and will facilitate a deeper comprehension of lung development.

Keywords: Anatomy education, Embryology, Evolutionary biology, Gills, Lung, Respiratory


[HTML Full Text]   [PDF Full Text]

Author Contributions
Samantha White – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Melinda Danowitz – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Nikos Solounias – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Samantha White et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



  Home line About the Journal line Aim and Scope line Open Access line Archives
Apply as Editor line Apply as Reviewer line Submit Reviews - Editors line Submit Reviews - Reviewers
Instructions for Authors line Templates to Use line Copyright Form line Author Checklist
Online Submission line Email Submission line Submit Revision line Submit All Forms line Submit Page Proofs
Terms of Service line Privacy policy line Disclaimer line FAQ line Contact: Journal line Contact: Edorium Journals line Site Map
 
  Copyright © 2017. Edorium. All rights reserved.