Edorium Journal of

Anatomy and Embryology

 
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Review Article
 
A combined approach of teaching head development using embryology and comparative anatomy
Melinda Danowitz1, Hong Zheng2, Adriana Guigova3, Nikos Solounias4
1BA, Medical Student, Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, USA.
2DO, Resident, Vascular Surgery, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3DO, Fellow, Hematology/oncology, North Shore- Long Island Jewish, New Hyde Park, NY, USA.
4PhD, Professor, Anatomy, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY, USA.

Article ID: 100011A04MD2016
doi:10.5348/A04-2016-11-RA-3

Address correspondence to:
Nikos Solounias
8000 Northern Boulevard
Old Westbury, NY
USA, 11568

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How to cite this article
Danowitz M, Zheng H, Guigova A, Solounias N. A combined approach of teaching head development using embryology and comparative anatomy. Edorium J Anat Embryo 2016;3:17–27.


Abstract
Many aspects of human head embryology reflect its evolutionary development. The pharyngeal arches, a major component of head development, originally functioned in filter feeding and vascular exchange, which is why each arch has associated vasculature and muscles. The primitive tongue had few-associated muscles and was responsible for simple movements; the human tongue evolved post-otic somites that migrate to the tongue and develop the majority of the tongue musculature. These somites originate outside the tongue, and the motor innervation therefore differs from the general and special sensory innervation. In the primitive condition, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid belonged to a single muscle group that were involved in gill movements; they separate into two muscles with the reduction of certain skeletal elements, but retain the same innervation. Examining the evolutionary changes of many structures allows for a greater understanding of the human embryology, and removes the need for memorization of seemingly complex processes. A link to comparative evolutionary anatomy provides context to the purpose and morphology of primitive structures, and clarifies several issues in human head development.

Keywords: Anatomy education, Embryology, Head and neck, Pharyngeal arches

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Author Contributions
Melinda Danowitz – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Hong Zheng – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Adriana Guigova – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Nikos Solounias – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Melinda Danowitz et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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